Synit makes extensive use of Preserves, a programming-language-independent language for data.

The Preserves data language is in many ways comparable to JSON, XML, S-expressions, CBOR, ASN.1 BER, and so on. From the specification document:

Preserves supports records with user-defined labels, embedded references, and the usual suite of atomic and compound data types, including binary data as a distinct type from text strings.

Why does Synit rely on Preserves?

There are four aspects of Preserves that make it particularly relevant to Synit:

Grammar of values

Preserves has programming-language-independent semantics: the specification defines an equivalence relation over Preserves values.1 This makes it a solid foundation for a multi-language, multi-process, potentially distributed system like Synit. 2

Values and Types

Preserves values come in various types: a few basic atomic types, plus sequence, set, dictionary, and record compound types. From the specification:

                    Value = Atom           Atom = Boolean
                          | Compound            | Float
                          | Embedded            | Double
                                                | SignedInteger
                 Compound = Record              | String
                          | Sequence            | ByteString
                          | Set                 | Symbol
                          | Dictionary

Concrete syntax

Preserves offers multiple syntaxes, each useful in different settings. Values are automatically, losslessly translatable from one syntax to another because Preserves' semantics are syntax-independent.

The core Preserves specification defines a text-based, human-readable, JSON-like syntax, that is a syntactic superset of JSON, and a completely equivalent compact machine-oriented syntax, crucial to the definition of canonical form for Preserves values.3

Here are a few example values, written using the text syntax (see the specification for the grammar):

Boolean    : #t #f
Float      : 1.0f 10.4e3f -100.6f
Double     : 1.0 10.4e3 -100.6
Integer    : 1 0 -100
String     : "Hello, world!\n"
ByteString : #"bin\x00str\x00" #[YmluAHN0cgA] #x"62696e0073747200"
Symbol     : hello-world |hello world| = ! hello? || ...
Record     : <label field1 field2 ...>
Sequence   : [value1 value2 ...]
Set        : #{value1 value2 ...}
Dictionary : {key1: value1 key2: value2 ...: ...}
Embedded   : #!value

Commas are optional in sequences, sets, and dictionaries.

Canonical form

Every Preserves value can be serialized into a canonical form using the machine-oriented syntax along with a few simple rules about serialization ordering of elements in sets and keys in dictionaries.

Having a canonical form means that, for example, a cryptographic hash of a value's canonical serialization can be used as a unique fingerprint for the value.

For example, the SHA-512 digest of the canonical serialization of the value

<sms-delivery <address international "31653131313">
              <address international "31655512345">
              <rfc3339 "2022-02-09T08:18:29.88847+01:00">
              "This is a test SMS message">




Preserves values can include embedded references, written as values with a #! prefix. For example, a command adding <some-setting> to the user settings database might look like this as it travels over a Unix pipe connecting a program to the root dataspace:

<user-settings-command <assert <some-setting>> #![0 123]>

The user-settings-command structure includes the assert command itself, plus an embedded capability reference, #![0 123], which encodes a transport-specific reference to an object. (See the Syndicate Protocol for an concrete example of this.)

The syntax of values under #! differs depending on the medium carrying the message. For example, point-to-point transports need to be able to refer to "my references" (#![0 n]) and "your references" (#![1 n]), while multicast/broadcast media (like Ethernet) need to be able to name references within specific, named conversational participants (#![<udp [192 168 1 10] 5999> n]), and in-memory representations need to use direct pointers (#!140425190562944).

In every case, the references themselves work like Unix file descriptors: an integer or similar that unforgeably denotes, in a local context, some complex data structure on the other side of a trust boundary.

When capability-bearing Preserves values are read off a transport, the capabilities are automatically rewritten into references to in-memory proxy objects. The reverse process of rewriting capability references happens when an in-memory value is serialized for transmission.


Preserves comes with a schema language suitable for defining protocols among actors/programs in Synit. Because Preserves is a superset of JSON, its schemas can be used for parsing JSON just as well as for native Preserves values.4 From the schema specification:

A Preserves schema connects Preserves Values to host-language data structures. Each definition within a schema can be processed by a compiler to produce

  • a host-language type definition;
  • a partial parsing function from Values to instances of the produced type; and
  • a total serialization function from instances of the type to Values.

Every parsed Value retains enough information to always be able to be serialized again, and every instance of a host-language data structure contains, by construction, enough information to be successfully serialized.

Instead of taking host-language data structure definitions as primary, in the way that systems like Serde do, Preserves schemas take the shape of the serialized data as primary.

To see the difference, let's look at an example.

Example: Book Outline

Systems like Serde concentrate on defining (de)serializers for host-language type definitions.

Serde starts from definitions like the following.5 It generates (de)serialization code for various different data languages (such as JSON, XML, CBOR, etc.) in a single programming language: Rust.

fn main() {
pub struct BookOutline {
    pub sections: Vec<BookItem>,
pub enum BookItem {
pub struct Chapter {
    pub name: String,
    pub sub_items: Vec<BookItem>,

The (de)serializers are able to convert between in-memory and serialized representations such as the following JSON document. The focus is on Rust: interpreting the produced documents from other languages is out-of-scope for Serde.

  "sections": [
    { "PartTitle": "Part I" },
      "Chapter": {
        "name": "Chapter One",
        "sub_items": []
      "Chapter": {
        "name": "Chapter Two",
        "sub_items": []

By contrast, Preserves schemas map a single data language to and from multiple programming languages. Each specific programming language has its own schema compiler, which generates type definitions and (de)serialization code for that language from a language-independent grammar.

For example, a schema able to parse values compatible with those produced by Serde for the type definitions above is the following:

version 1 .

BookOutline = {
  "sections": @sections [BookItem ...],
} .

BookItem = @chapter { "Chapter": @value Chapter }
         / @separator "Separator"
         / @partTitle { "PartTitle": @value string } .

Chapter = {
  "name": @name string,
  "sub_items": @sub_items [BookItem ...],
} .

Using the Rust schema compiler, we see types such as the following, which are similar to but not the same as the original Rust types above:

fn main() {
pub struct BookOutline {
    pub sections: std::vec::Vec<BookItem>
pub enum BookItem {
    Chapter { value: std::boxed::Box<Chapter> },
    PartTitle { value: std::string::String }
pub struct Chapter {
    pub name: std::string::String,
    pub sub_items: std::vec::Vec<BookItem>

Using the TypeScript schema compiler, we see

export type BookOutline = {"sections": Array<BookItem>};

export type BookItem = (
    {"_variant": "chapter", "value": Chapter} |
    {"_variant": "separator"} |
    {"_variant": "partTitle", "value": string}

export type Chapter = {"name": string, "sub_items": Array<BookItem>};

Using the Racket schema compiler, we see

(struct BookOutline (sections))
(define (BookItem? p)
    (or (BookItem-chapter? p)
        (BookItem-separator? p)
        (BookItem-partTitle? p)))
(struct BookItem-chapter (value))
(struct BookItem-separator ())
(struct BookItem-partTitle (value))
(struct Chapter (name sub_items))

and so on.

Example: Book Outline redux, using Records

The schema for book outlines above accepts Preserves (JSON) documents compatible with the (de)serializers produced by Serde for a Rust-native type.

Instead, we might choose to define a Preserves-native data definition, and to work from that:6

version 1 .
BookOutline = <book-outline @sections [BookItem ...]> .
BookItem = Chapter / =separator / @partTitle string .
Chapter = <chapter @name string @sub_items [BookItem ...]> .

The schema compilers produce exactly the same type definitions7 for this variation. The differences are in the (de)serialization code only.

Here's the Preserves value equivalent to the example above, expressed using the Preserves-native schema:

<book-outline [
  "Part I"
  <chapter "Chapter One" []>
  <chapter "Chapter Two" []>



The specification defines a total order relation over Preserves values as well.


In particular, dataspaces need the assertion data they contain to have a sensible equivalence predicate in order to be useful at all. If you can't reliably tell whether two values are the same or different, how are you supposed to use them to look things up in anything database-like? Languages like JSON, which don't have a well-defined equivalence relation, aren't good enough. When programs communicate with each other, they need to be sure that their peers will understand the information they receive exactly as it was sent.


Besides the two core syntaxes, other serialization syntaxes are in use in other systems. For example, the Spritely Goblins actor library uses a serialization syntax called Syrup, reminiscent of bencode.


You have to use a Preserves text-syntax reader on JSON terms to do this, though: JSON values like null, true, and false naively read as Preserves symbols. Preserves doesn't have the concept of null.


This example is a simplified form of the preprocessor type definitions for mdBook, the system used to render these pages. I use a real Preserves schema definition for parsing and producing Serde's JSON representation of mdBook Book structures in order to preprocess the text.


By doing so, we lose compatibility with the Serde structures, but the point is to show the kinds of schemas available to us once we move away from strict compatibility with existing data formats.


Well, almost exactly the same. The only difference is in the Rust types, which use tuple-style instead of record-style structs for chapters and part titles.